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Augustine and the Old-Time New Agers

The Manicheans were the New Agers of the olden days. Derivative of Christianity, but straying far afield, the religion of Mani proffered an answer to the problem of evil and a path to salvation that held enormous appeal for intellectuals and pseudo-intellectuals from the third century onward. The young Augustine almost fell under its spell, but backed away before making a commitment. In later life he wrote the most devastating refutations of Manichean doctrine.

Now New City Press has gathered these eight works together in a single volume, The Manichean Debate. Augustine’s responses take several forms: treatises, dialogues, and letters, some of them mingled with memoir. The translations here are good and the introductions and notes very helpful. Some of the works appear for the first time in English.

Manicheans held that the world was made not by God, but by a wicked creator, the so-called god of the Old Testament, which they rejected. Matter was the locus of evil; spirit the realm of the good. Thus, they rejected the world and all of its delights: sex, wine, meats, and so on. Their arguments, perhaps the most persuasive of all the Gnostic species, drew out Augustine’s most important distinctions: about the goodness of marriage and food and strong drink, when ordered to their proper ends, and the even greater value of the renunciation of these goods, when they are given up for a higher Good.

Some converts to Mani’s way were drawn by the cult’s severe asceticism. It was enormously attractive during a time when the Church was wracked by scandals. The translator of this volume, Father Teske, summarizes Augustine’s response in a way that speaks to the anxieties of many of today’s Christians: “The number of the saints who follow the narrow path is small in comparison to the multitude of sinners, but that small number is hidden on the threshing floor of the Church.”

The volume will delight readers interested in Christian antiquity. But it will also prove useful for contemporary apologetics. The old religion of Mani — which would build a wall of separation between matter and spirit — is rising again under new names. Who better than Augustine should teach us to respond?

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How Can I Keep from Digging?

The International Herald Tribune captures just a bit of the coolness of Rome.

Of all the old sayings about the Eternal City at least one remains simply true — dig a deep hole almost anywhere here, and you’ll unearth an archaeological artifact, or two.

Yet a wave of public and private building projects is suddenly focusing unusual attention on Rome’s rich subterranean world as one treasure after another emerges at a steady clip.

“We’re walking on the world’s largest untapped underground museum,” said Maria Antonietta Tomei, a government official responsible for coordinating archaeological digs in Rome.

During the last week, reports surfaced that 800 coins from the fourth and fifth centuries B.C. had been unearthed during the reconstruction of a movie theater near the Trevi Fountain.

If you join us for our May 2007 pilgrimage, we’ll probably ask you not to carry on any covert digs by night — unless you’re digging into a plate of pasta.

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Not Everybody Must Get Stoned, But He Did

I’m sorry I’m late with this. Here it is, St. John’s day, and I’m just catching up with the wonderful patristic material on St. Stephen at Gashwin Gomes’s blog. Please pray for Gashwin’s dad, btw, who’s undergoing radiation.

As for St. John: Even though I’m a proud graduate of St. John the Evangelist Grade School in Pittston, Pa., I think my little brain maxed out on the evangelist with my post on Christmas Eve.

St. John, St. Stephen, pray for us!

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The Devotions Meme

Curt Jester tagged me for a meme.

1. Favorite devotion or prayer to Jesus?
This week: The Creche.

2. Favorite Marian devotion or prayer?
Sub tuum praesidium. It dates at least to third-century Egypt, and probably further back than that. When I pray this one, I feel like I’m calling on the best old habits of all of heaven.

3. Do you wear a scapular or medal?
I wear the brown scapular.

4. Do you have holy water in your home?

5. Do you offer up your sufferings?
Yes, always with my Morning Offering. I’m trying to do it more consciously and often throughout the day.

6. Do you observe First Fridays and First Saturdays?
No. But I do have certain observances for every Friday and Saturday.

7. Do you go to Eucharistic Adoration? How frequently?
I try to make a visit to the tabernacle once a day.

8. Are you a Saturday evening Mass person or Sunday morning Mass person?
Sunday morning.

9. Do you say prayers at mealtime?

10. Favorite Saint(s)?
The Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph — and, putting those first two names together, St. Josemaria. The Apostles. The Fathers, especially Jerome, Augustine, Clement of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, Irenaeus … Gosh, I’d better stop.

11. Can you recite the Apostles Creed by heart?

12. Do you usually say short prayers (aspirations) during the course of the day?
Oh yeah! How do people get through the day otherwise?

13. Bonus Question: When you pass by a automobile accident or other serious mishap, do you say a quick prayer for the folks involved?
More and more as I grow older. As an old apostate once said: the bell tolls for thee. So too does the siren blare.

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What’s Under My Tree

In this week’s Pittsburgh Catholic, Craig Maier had kind words to say about the new edition of my book The Fathers of the Church. Since the paper doesn’t post reviews, he kindly fulfilled my request for an electronic copy, which follows…

This past May, the film version of Dan Brown’s “The Da Vinci Code” came and went, but not before grossing $217 million domestically and over $532 million in the rest of the world. In the spirit of community service for those who haven’t had the misfortune of encountering either Brown’s book or the movie knock-off, I’ll spoil the plot: The Christian faith, Brown argues, is all a sham concocted by a “shadow conspiracy” of power-hungry, women-hating quacks.

For those who want to find the truth of the matter, though, the best bet isn’t Brown or the cottage industry of pseudo-intellectuals trying to scratch out a living in his wake. Mike Aquilina’s new edition of The Fathers of the Church, recently released by Our Sunday Visitor, not only introduces readers to the men and women of Brown’s “shadow conspiracy.” He lets them speak for themselves.

After the Apostles, the Fathers of the Church were the most important figures in making the church what it is today. Through Roman persecution and heated debates over everything from the number of books in the Bible to the nature of Christ himself, they formed a far-flung community of believers into a church.

“Many books tell the story of the first Christian centuries as a succession of creeds, councils, persecutions, and heresies,” Aquilina writes. “But it was far more than that, and far more interesting. It was the story of a family, and of how the Fathers of that family strove to keep their household together, to preserve the family’s patrimony, to teach and discipline their children, and to protect the family from danger. Only when we understand them as fathers can we understand the Church Fathers.”

The new edition, which includes more figures and selections than the first one published in 1999, covers six centuries of early Christian history, from St. Clement, the fourth pope and first of the fathers, to Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, a sixth century Greek about whose life we know little. It also includes a section on women like St. Perpetua whose stories and writings offer an important window into the life of the early church.

Some recent research on early Christianity paints a picture of the early church as a complex and conflict-ridden community. Yet, one of the interesting themes of Aquilina’s research into the first fathers is how consistent they really were and how devoted they were to maintaining the core of teaching that came down to them from the apostles themselves.

“Even today, the communities separated from Catholicism and Orthodoxy must confront the witness of the Fathers, and the apparent unity of the patristic experience with the experience of modern Catholic Christians,” Aquilina writes.

“In order to dismiss the early witness of today’s Catholic doctrines—for example, the Real Presence, the papacy, and the priesthood,” he continues, “Protestant scholars must posit a very early date when, they claim, the life of the Church went radically wrong, and then they must search out a subtle distinction between the witness of the Apostles in the New Testament and the seemingly identical witness of the Apostolic Fathers in the same century.”

After a brief biography and introduction for each father, Aquilina provides short passages that offer glimpses into the ideas of each. As with any book like this, some readers already familiar with the writings of the fathers—which would constitute dozens of volumes if printed in their entirety—may quibble about the inclusion of some portions over others, but the expanded edition is concise, comprehensive and readable, making it a good introduction.

Though nearly all of them are venerated as saints today, the Church Fathers were a diverse bunch. And though they all strove toward orthodoxy and led holy lives, they weren’t perfect. St. Jerome, who translated the Bible into Latin, had a nasty temper. Eusebius, a bishop and church historian, ended up on the wrong side of the council of Nicea. Origen, whose teachings were so important in the second and third centuries, still got a couple of things wrong. Even so, the church recognized that the truth of their writing far surpassed any personal imperfections.

Of course, some passages may be a little abstract and difficult for contemporary readers because they come from a different place and time. Though there are some exceptions, many don’t offer “theological bullet-points” that can be translated directly into daily life. They require a bit of effort and imagination to find the deeper significance they contain.

Perhaps the best advice for modern readers comes from a father himself. “My son, diligently apply yourself to the reading of sacred Scriptures. Apply yourself, I say,” Origen wrote to a student, St. Gregory of Pontus. “And applying yourself thus to the divine study, seek aright, and with unwavering trust in God, the meaning of the holy Scriptures, which so many have missed.”

Years later, St. Gregory reflected on his former teacher’s influence, paying a compliment that would apply to any of the fathers. “How shall I give account of what he did for us, in instructing us in theology and devout character?” he wrote. “He himself went on with us, preparing the way before us, and leading us by the hand, as if on a journey.”

For readers who persist, Aquilina’s book is worth the effort. The selections reveal what early Christians were worried about, and how the early fathers strove to lead their flocks gently, but firmly. It’s not surprising that the fathers weren’t worried about anything that Brown’s “Da Vinci Code” says. They were no “shadow conspiracy.”

Brown is content to read works about works about rumors. Aquilina gives readers the real deal, and the real deal is plenty interesting.

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Roundup to the Nearest Blog

Not content with an occasional Patristics Carnival, Phil has decided to launch a regular mini-roundup of each week’s patristic highlights in the blogosphere.

Eventually, we may hope, this will develop into a television show, like Mel Allen’s “This Week in Baseball.” Watch for me in the bloopers reel.

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For the Bulgarians, today is Ignazhden, the feast of St. Ignatius of Antioch, and apparently it’s a big celebration in Sofia. The old Antiochene is to Bulgaria what St. Lucy is to Sweden and St. Nicholas is to other countries, the major December saint. So you’d better party like it’s, um, 99.